MONONUCLEOSIS


- Description of virus -

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV):
* also called Lymphocryptovirus and Human Herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4)
- major (most common) cause of mononucleosis
- a member of the herpesvirus/herpes simplex 'family'
  • 1 of 8 distinct viruses (of this family) that cause diseases in humans
- found in cells grown from tissues related to lymphatic cancer
- capable of both lytic and lysogenic life cycles
- Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) core
Mononucleosis Cell
Mononucleosis Cell

  • large, double-stranded, linear
- infects only 2 types of cells (known types):
  • some salivary gland cells
  • one type of white blood cell (B-lymphocyte, B-cell)
    • can multiply, resulting in lymphatic cancer

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
* also known as HCMV or Human Herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5)
- a member of the herpesvirus/herpes simplex 'family'
  • 1 of 8 distinct viruses (of this family) that cause diseases in humans
- both lytic and lysogenic life cycles
  • stays alive, but latent, in the body for life
- spread via direct contact (carried by people)
- no treatments for CMV infections
721px-CMVschema.svg.png
- DNA core, no envelope, spikes of Glycoprotein III and Glycoprotein I

- Viral Specificity -

- Affects lymph tissues and glands located in the neck, armpits, groin, brochial tubes, spleen and liver
- Lymph nodes will swell and become tender because lymphatic fluid doesn't drain properly
- Spleen may become enlarged with abnormal leukocytes in the blood
- Affects respiratory system
- Abnormal liver function may be found

- Symptoms and progression of the disease -

Incubation Period
- 4 - 8 weeks after exposure to the virus

Symptoms
Symptoms of Mononucleosis
Symptoms of Mononucleosis

- Fever ranging up to 105°F
- Sore throat
- Swollen glands (spleen, liver, lymph nodes)
- Fatigue/drowsiness
- Headache
- Jaundice (yellowness of skin and whites of eyes)
- Generalized aching/muscle stiffness
- Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting
- Chest pain
- Coughing
- Skin rashes
- Depression
- Insomnia

Symptom Progression
- Majority of people will have no symptoms or mild flu-like symptoms
- Others will have symptoms starting slowly with fatigue, feeling ill, headaches and sore throat.
- Fever drops in 10 days
- Glands heal in 4 weeks
- Fatigue lasts 3 weeks to 3 months

Complications
- 50% have enlarged spleens
- If the spleen ruptures, can cause drop in blood pressure and lead to shock
- 20% have enlarged livers
- May cause death in people with weakened immune systems
- Anemia
- Hepatitis
- Neurological complications (Bells Palsy)

- Common Methods of Transmission -

Mode of Transmission
Examples+ Explanations
direct contact
kissing (saliva is passed)
inhaling respiratory particles
sneezing, coughing (infected
saliva/ mucus paticles remain
in the air for others to breathe in)
  • upon infection, one is usually able to transmit the virus/ infect others for 3 weeks minimum

- Treatment and Prevention (if any) -

Treatment
- No cure
- Antibiotics should not be given unless there is a positive strep test
- Rest
- Hydrate (plenty of fluids)
- Acetominophen/Ibuprofen for pain and fever
- Sore throat remedies
- If spleen and/or liver are swollen, avoid sports (especially those involving vigorous contact) to prevent rupture and damage
- Gargling with warm salt water
- Eating foods rich in folate (vitamin B9)
  • Helps fatigue and speed up recovery (helps the body make new cells and antibodies)
  • Examples: leafy green vegetables, asparagus, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, eggs, beans, melons, etc.

Prevention
- Avoid kissing or sharing utensils with someone who has mononucleosis
- Avoiding close personal contact with those infected
- Thoroughly washing any surfaces or objects that have come into contact with saliva
- Frequently washing your hands
- Avoid sharing food and beverages
- Avoid stress-inducing activities (helps prevent the contraction of viruses )

- Miscellaneous -

- "Mononucleosis" comes from the large number of unusually shaped white blood cells with one nucleus (mononuclear)
- Certain antibiotics will make the disease worse
  • Up to 90 percent of people with mono will get a severe rash if they take ampicillin or amoxicillin
- A secondary infection, like hepatitis, can develop
- Most common of those aged 10 to 35 years old
- Mono is mostly found in the United States, Canada, and Europe
- Post-Pump Syndrome: contracting it through a blood transfusion post-cardiac surgery
- 90-95% of men and women have been infected with EBV

- Resources accessed -

Title of article: Mononeucleosis
Author: Medline Plus
URL: http://www.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000591.htm

Title of article: Infectious Mononucleosis: The Facts on Infectious Mononucleosis
Author: MediResources Inc.
URL: http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?disease_id=75&channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907

Title of article: Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono)
Author: Melissa Conrad Stoppler, MD
URL: http://www.medicinenet.com.infectious_mononucleosis/article.htm

Title of article: Cytomegalovirus
Author: Directors of Health Promotion and Education
URL: http://www.dhpe.org/infect/cytomegalo.html

Title of article: Mono Disease: Prevention of mono
Author: monotreatment.com
URL: http://monotreatment.com/prevention.html

Title of article: Epstein-Barr virus
Author: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epstein-Barr_virus

Title of article: Herpesviridae
Author: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herpesviridae

Title of article: Cytomegalovirus
Author: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytomegalovirus