Hantavirus

Description of virus that causes the disease.

external image 22-15_Hantavirus_1.jpg
^ Diagram of the hantavirus ^

  • enveloped
  • single-stranded
  • mostly negative-sense RNA
  • have 3 genomic segments ( segment reassortment in species is common)
  • spherical
  • 90 - 100 nm (nanometers)
  • spiked


Viral Specificity:

  • is found in rodents, but does not affect them
  • is found in (and harms) human cells
  • muscle and bone cells
  • certain cells in the immune system - kidney, lung, etc.
  • platelets (blood cells)


Symptoms and progression of the disease:

  • fever of up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit
  • chills
  • body aches
  • trouble breathing
  • symptoms appear from 2 weeks to 45 days after contact with virus
  • incubation period of 2-4 weeks in humans
  • can cause kidney failure
  • respiratory distress
  • blood abnormalities
  • can be fatal


Common Methods of Transmission:

external image hantaviruses.jpg
^ How hantavirus is obtained ^

  • contact with deer mice ot their droppings, unrine or saliva
  • breathe in contaminated air
  • contact with mucus membranes or broken skin
  • being bitten by an infected mouse
  • eating contaminated food
  • is NOT obtained through other humans (isn't contagious)

Figure 3 Potential exposure to hantavirus prior to onset of illness in Canadian cases
Figure 3 Potential exposure to hantavirus prior to onset of illness in Canadian cases

^ Potential exposure of hantavirus^
  • Red - Farm - 25%
  • Blue - Domestic - 34.4%
  • Orange - Domestic and additional risk factors - 15.6%
  • Purple - Unknown - 9.4%
  • Other - Wildlife Surveys, Recreational, Ranch, Military, Lumber Mill - 3.1% (each)


Treatment and Prevention (if any):

  • no vaccination
  • keep home and work place as free of deer mice and other rodents as possible
  • when cleaning up after them, wear gloves and masks, and cover any breaks in the skin


Miscellaneous:
  • half of cases result in death
  • identified in early 1950's during Korean War


Resources accessed:


Tara K. Harper
TKH Virology Notes: Hantavirus
http://www.tarakharper.com/v_hanta.htm#mech
2004 (accessed October 2010)

Hantavirus Infection: Communicable Disease Control
http://www.gov.mb.ca/health/publichealth/cdc/fs/Hantavirusfs.pdf
January 2006 (accessed October 2010)

Albert Health Services
Hantavirus Fact Sheet
http://www.capitalhealth.ca/nr/rdonlyres/eadfrvwshjsrijkjghmls3zghxc2hxzkjube26dzceggyyuobvmhq6iqinaacbcfnykboyjxui3jjsf5bqurd2xsf4g/hantavirusfactsheet.pdf
September 2008 (accessed October 2010)

The Health Central Network
Hantavirus Infection - Syptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/683/main.html
2010 (accessed October 19, 2010)

OSSTF/FEESO
Hantavirus
http://www.osstf.on.ca/Default.aspx?DN=7010f108-2fc1-430a-a243-22274b93ccc8
2010 (accessed October 19, 2010)

Hantaviruses - Respiratory Distress Syndrome
http://www.auuuu.org/respiratory/hantaviruses/
2007 (accessed October 19, 2010)

Public Health Agency of Canada
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrom in Canada, 1989 - 1999
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/00vol26/dr2608ea.html
April 15, 2000 (accessed October 19, 2010)